Synthetic biology

SynBio is a technology which has amongst its aims the creation of artificial forms of organisms, such as algae or bacteria, which will be able to efficiently generate hydrogen from water through photosynthesis. The hydrogen generated may be used in synthetic fuels or in fuel cells as an energy storage medium.

Improved genetic enegineering techniques (such as CRISPR) and lower DNA sequencing and synthesis costs, synthetic biology is a booming industrial sector.

The top down approach uses metabolic and genetic engineering techniques to change the operation of cell components. The bottom up approach creates entirely new biological systems from non-living biomolecular components, such as to form an artificial cell.

Synthetic biology: ETH Zurich researchers reported in April 2019 that they had produced the first bacterial genome (Caulobacter ethensis-2.0), made by a computer.

In May 2019, a form of viable life was created artificially, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli. The natural number of 64 codons in the bacterial genome was to reduced to 59 in order to encode 20 amino acids.