German offshore wind power generation

In 2017 Germany added 1.4 GW to its offshore fleet, bringing the total to 1214 offshore grid-connected wind turbines in 18 large wind farms, with a total capacity of 5.06 GW, generating c. 15 TWh (in 2016 13 TWh, 2015 8.3 TWh, 80 TWh all wind) per year. The federal government plans to expand the installed capacity offshore to 6.5 GW by 2020. Currently around 20,000 people work in the German offshore industry.

The more consistent and stronger winds offshore, as well as the higher and more powerful wind turbines, give capacity factors nearly twice those of onshore wind farms. This means that for each MW installed nearly twice as much energy can be produced offshore than onshore. An 8MW offshore turbine will generate 5 times the amount of electricity as a 3 MW onshore turbine. A single rotation of an 8MW turbine offshore will power an average German household for 29 days. Every 75 seconds, an offshore turbine generates enough electricity to supply a household for a year. 9 MW turbines were introduced by MHI Vestas Offshore Wind during 2017.

German offshore wind farms are primarily located in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which lies outside the 12-mile zone (22.2 km from the coast). This is to conserve the natural environment of the Wadden Sea and to avoid impacts on the landscape. Due to the greater depths and distances involved, costs for building and maintaining the farms are higher than inshore wind farms, such as those in Scandanavia and the UK.

German offshore wind power generation

In 2017, Germany added 1.4 GW to its offshore fleet, bringing the total to 1214 offshore grid-connected wind turbines in 18 large wind farms, with a total capacity of 5.06 GW, generating c. 15 TWh (in 2016 13 TWh, 2015 8.3 TWh, 80 TWh all wind) per year. The federal government plans to expand the installed capacity offshore to 6.5 GW by 2020. Currently around 20,000 people work in the German offshore industry.

The more consistent and stronger winds offshore, as well as the higher and more powerful wind turbines, give capacity factors nearly twice those of onshore wind farms. This means that for each MW installed nearly twice as much energy can be produced offshore than onshore. An 8 MW offshore turbine will generate 5 times the amount of electricity as a 3 MW onshore turbine. A single rotation of an 8MW turbine offshore will power an average German household for 29 days. Every 75 seconds, an offshore turbine generates enough electricity to supply a household for a year. 9 MW turbines were introduced by MHI Vestas Offshore Wind during 2017.

German offshore wind farms

German offshore wind farms are primarily located in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which lies outside the 12-mile zone (22.2 km from the coast). This is to conserve the natural environment of the Wadden Sea and to avoid impacts on the landscape. Due to the greater depths and distances involved, costs for building and maintaining the farms are higher than inshore wind farms, such as those in Scandanavia and the UK.

German offshore wind parks with capacities greater than 100 MW in operation at the end of 2017. They are all in the North Sea unless indicated as Baltic with OS (Ostsee) :

NameCapacity /MWNo. turbinesOperational
BARD Offshore I400802012
Veja Mate402672017
Global Tech I400802015
Wikinger (OS)353.5702017
Nordsee One332.1542017
Gode Wind 1330552017
Borkum Riffgrund 1312782015
DanTysk302.4802015
Amrumbank West302.4802015
Nordsee Ost295.2482015
EnBW Baltic 2 (OS)288802015
Butendiek288802015
Sandbank (Phase 1)288722017
Meerwind Süd/Ost288802015
Gode Wind 2252422017
Trianel Windpark Borkum (Phase 1)200402015
Riffgat113.4302014
Nordergründe110.7182017
Total5057.71214
The average turbine size is 4.17 MW, generating 10.7 GWh each, or 2.6 GWh per installed MW capacity. This corresponds to an average capacity factor of 29.3%.

German offshore wind parks under construction:

NameCapacity /MWNo. turbinesOperational
Hohe See497712019
Borkum Riffgrund 2464.8562019
Merkur Offshore396662019
Arkona-Becken Südost (OS)384602019
Deutsche Bucht259.5312019
Trianel Windpark Borkum (Phase 2)203.2322019
Albatros (Hohe See Extension)112162019
Total2316.5332
The average turbine size of new installations 7.0 MW. At a capacity factor of 40% [GWEC estimate], these will generate c. 24 GWh each, or 3.4 GWh per installed MW capacity.

German offshore wind parks with capacities greater than 100 MW (by end of 2017)

Name /year operationalCapacity /MWNo. turbines
Veja Mate /201740267
BARD Offshore I /201240080
Global Tech I /201540080
Wikinger (Baltic Sea) /2017353.570
Nordsee One /2017332.154
Gode Wind 1 /201733055
Borkum Riffgrund 1 /201531278
DanTysk /2015302.480
Amrumbank West /2015302.480
Nordsee Ost /2015295.248
EnBW Baltic 2 (Baltic) /201528880
Butendiek /201528880
Sandbank (Phase 1) /201728880
Meerwind Süd/Ost /201528880
Gode Wind 2 /201725242
Rianel Borkum (P1) /201520040
Riffgat /2014113.430
Nordergründe /2017110.718
Total5057.71214

Source:

The average turbine size is 4.17 MW, generating 10.7 GWh each, or 2.6 GWh per installed MW capacity. This corresponds to an average capacity factor of 29.3%. The Hohe See windfarm is under construction and will have a capacity of 497MW.