India electricity generation

With 18% of the world’s population, India consumes only 6% of global primary energy (per capita 40% of world average). 240 million people in India (25%) do not have access to electrical supply. India will be the world’s most populous nation soon, and its number of electricity consumers may double to well over a billion by the 2030s.

Electricity demand is increasing by 5% per annum. If every Indian consumed as much energy as the average American, the world’s energy consumption would be doubled. Even if India continues to consume per capita 60% of world average, it will contribute around 25% to the world’s rise in energy demand. This makes India the major global trendsetter in energy management.

With no oil or gas to call its own, India relies heavily on coal (70% of power). It is the largest growth market for coal in the world, and will account for nearly half of the worldwide added net coal capacity by 2040. It has large domestic coal resources, but still needs to import coal. Oil consumption could reach 10 million barrels a day by 2040 (10% of current consumption), creating a dangerous liability for the security of supply. Gas consumption will be 8% of total energy mix by 2040.

900 GW (80% of USA’s current capacity) of new power capacity will be required by 2040 to met growth in demand and population size. India has pledged to ensure 40% of power by 2030 is generated by non-fossil fuel energy sources (nuclear, hydro, solar and wind). This includes 340 GW of new solar and wind projects. The installation progress is hampered by network, land use and financing problems.

India has 45 GW hydro capacity, and 23 GW wind power. It is aiming to reach 175GW installed renewable (excl. hydro) capacity by 2022, with solar providing a strong boost.

Primary Energy Demand: 1990: c. 300 Mtoe; 2000: 441 Mtoe; 2013: 775 Mtoe.

2000 /Mtoe2000 /%2013 /Mtoe2013 /%
Coal1653334144
Oil1102517823
Biomass1503418624
Natural gas22546.56
Renewables9215.52
Nuclear4.5181
Total441100775100

Electricity

Demand in 2000 = 376 TWh. 2013 = 897 TWh. This is an average 6.9% growth.

Electricity is only 15% of final energy consumption (up from 11% in 2000).

Capacity = 290 GW. Coal = 60%, hydropower = 15%, natural gas = 8%, nuclear = 3%.

Nuclear power: 21 reactors at 7 sites, for 6GW capacity. 6 more reactors are under construction, to add 4 GW. In 2008 the average load factor was 40%, due to fuel shortages. In 2008, India became a party to the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group agreement, providing access to technology, expertise, reactor parts and uranium. By 2013, the average load factor rose to 80%.

Source of data: IndiaEnergyOutlook_WEO2015.pdf